Kyiv’s machine-building and metal working industries grew in importance in the 1970s. Kyiv’s economy depended heavily on industrial production, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering. The city underwent another round of gradual Rustication. Attempts to challenge Soviet rule were brutally suppressed, especially concerning democracy, the Ukrainian SSR’s self-government, and ethnic-religious issues.
Since the war, Kyiv has steadily expanded, annexing villages to its west, east, and north. These new suburbs have been home to many large apartment complexes since the 1970s. Kyiv’s total housing fund increased from 6.74 million square meters in 1950 to 33.6 million square meters in 1981.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukraine’s independence in 1991, Kyiv remained Ukraine’s capital and experienced a steady influx of ethnic Ukrainian migrants from other regions of the country. During Ukraine’s transition to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kyiv has remained the country’s largest and wealthiest city.